Will There be a Water Crisis in Next 10 Years?

Most observers believe a water crisis threat to be one of scarcity, but there is another crisis at hand for Earth's many inhabitants living without regular access to drinking water and sanitation. However, global water mismanagement unfolds continually which does not bode well for the future – regardless of where you live. As we strive to accommodate those who are suffering from a lack of access, we must also turn our efforts toward conservation and other measures to protect global water resources for future generations.

Widespread Usage

Understanding the scale of water use goes beyond our individual daily concerns. Personal use accounts for a significant portion of the water used, overall, but this is only one aspect of the big picture. In fact, domestic water use accounts for roughly ten-percent of total consumption levels, so household personal water use accounts for a relatively small portion of the total water used; especially when compared to agricultural and industrial use. In each of the primary water usage categories: Agricultural, Industrial, and Domestic; there is room for management improvement leading to more efficient use and conservation of water resources. Shifts in the way we farm and eat, for example, hold the potential to greatly diminish the amount of water used to produce food. Simply moving toward a plant-based diet, with less acreage devoted to raising beef and feed crops, would have a significant impact in itself.

Recognize the Limited Resource

Averting a water crisis starts with recognition that water is a scarce and limited resource which must be protected and conserved. Responsible water management requires commitments from users, who must alter their behavior to successfully lower consumption levels. Until the commitment becomes widespread, the status quo will continue to support water waste.

Water Management Realities

Pressure from pollution, industrial expansion, and population growth has led to water usage that is not sustainable. In addition to scarcity, the quality of the world's water supply is degrading as we continue to draw on water resources. A significant share of the world's wetlands have been lost to farmland or other development, for example, and some of the world's great rivers no longer complete their flow to the sea.

Once water usage is quantified and the resource is recognized as a scarce natural supply, there are only two ways to address shortcomings in the world supply: Find more water or use less. Consumption levels cannot realistically carry forward at the same rate; especially in light of population growth and forecasts accounting for future demands. As a result, synching our human needs with the natural planetary resources provided is the only way to avert a water crisis. Effective management works the equation in reverse; claiming only the amount of water that is sustainable, rather than continuing to deplete future resources.

Mobilize Leadership

In addition to incremental conservation efforts conducted by individuals, water management reform relies on strong leadership. Legislators and other global decision-makers are tasked with crafting policies that influence how water is used in industry and agriculture, which account for a vast majority of the world's water usage. The world's population continues to grow by around 80-million people annually, so the current water usage model is unsustainable for a growing set of users. Lawmakers and global organizations can no longer leave water issues for subsequent generations to remedy; water management must be prioritized as a global concern. Global water mismanagement has set the stage for a water crisis more widespread than today's regional lack of access to fresh water. Conservation, effective water management, and changes in the way humans use water are promising strategies for heading-off catastrophic consequences.

Author Bio:

This is a guest post by Sarah Brooks from Freepeoplesearch.org. She is a Houston based freelance writer and blogger. Questions and comments can be sent to brooks.sarah23 @ gmail.com.

Share

Augview – a Window to Your Underground Assets

 

Water Main Installation

Augview, founded by Michael Bundock in 2012 in New Zealand, is the first commercial, mobile application I have seen offered to the public works industry allowing utilities to geospatially capture, store, and display underground utilities in 3D through the use of a tablet or other mobile device. The software, through the use of GIS, will show operators their water, sewer, or other underground lines superimposed in 3D upon the ground in a geospatially accurate position. Users can then query the lines as with any other online GIS and access data about that utility such as size, material, age, and any other type of stored data. Or if a locator finds a discrepancy in a line's location or if he finds a new line, he can enter it into the software and immediately verify the updated or new location is accurate.

One example I can think of where I could have used this type of device was when we found a patched area in a roadway on one of our projects. It was one of those typical failures you find where you can see someone repaired something, but there's still something going on because a small hole opens back up with a void underneath. A lot of times this is caused by a hole in a sewer which allows soil above the pipe to wash away into the line leaving a void under the pavement. I knew the city had a sewer running along the roadway near that area, and I noticed a water shut off box nearby in the parkway. Because in our area the sewer lines used to be run with the water lines, I suspected it could be a failure with the building sewer. The business owner came out to comment on it and mentioned there had been a problem there, but it was difficult for me to tell for sure from what she explained if it had been the city sewer or the building owner's line. If I had Augview, I would have seen how all these lines related and where they were located. This visualization would have offered a better prediction of exactly which line could possibly have a failure. Of course public works professionals already try to make this determination using paper maps, but if it was the building owner's line, it is much easier to explain the problem to them using a 3D representation of everything rather than expect them to read a utility atlas.

I would have also liked to have an application like Augview for management of our water network. Our crews could have used the application to document the valve position when they opened or closed it. Then we could have just driven by to see if we had opened them all back up after we repaired the break, or we could have noticed when a valve between our pressure zones accidently was opened.

It would also be useful to use Augview to look at non-utility data for something like visualizing roadway ratings in the field. Then each year when we went out to rate the roadways, perhaps Augview could color the roadway based on the rating we assigned the year before in our GIS. This would prevent us from juggling paper maps in the truck while we are trying to also view and assess the pavement.

Past articles on this site have also imagined one day a product like Augview could be used to assist contractors as they build by displaying not only the underground lines but actually superimposing the plan onto the site. And I don't think it will be long before this type of implementation is extended to allow us to display real time data too. I can see one day we will be able to look up at the water tower and actually see the level of water in it or be able to see an indication at our water or wastewater plants of the flows running in and out and through each process. It would also be interesting to be able to drive by our lift stations and see the whole area colored red or green rather than just see the little red/green run light. This is also another facility that could display flows, seal failures, water levels or any other type of data.

While at the present time Augview has primarily been implemented in New Zealand, Melanie Langlotz,  business development manager, said she is "also looking for interested parties in the U.S. who can see the possibilities." So I believe it won't be long before we see Augview in use throughout the U.S. and other countries.

You can find out more about Augview by watching the video below or visiting their website or other social media sites:

Share

WATERCON2014

This year I am fortunate to again have the opportunity to attend WATERCON in Springfield, Ill.It's amazing how every year the conference offers so many great sessions, and the exhibitors always have such interesting displays and information. In addition to attending sessions and talking with vendors, I'll be posting as much as I can on several social media sites so that all of you can follow as much of the conference as possible. Because most of these sites are already listed in a blog post over at the Watercon blog site, I won't list them again here. Instead I encourage you to visit over there. And if you're attending too, I'll be looking for your own posts and photos from the event!

One added treat is a virtual expo we set up to try out that technology. Here's an image of the entry screen – you can find the link to visit the expo over on the Watercon site.

Watercon Virtual Expo Image 

Share

Hacking into SCADA

Water Plant Controls

Fortunately, for many years, the water and wastewater industry did not experience too many breaches on the digital front. But a few years back, the Stuxnet virus showed up and our digital innocence was shattered. When this happened, I was somewhat surprised because of the lack of previous attacks, but I never really heard how it all went down until last year when I sat in on a session at WATERCON 2013. When the topic came up the other day, I realized I'd never really shared exactly what I learned that day other than some rough notes I took on Cover-it-live and a general summary on the blog so figured I'd finally get around to posting that information today. 

The speaker, Michael Minkebige, a control systems engineer with Donohue and Associates started out by telling us we never really had problems in the past because hackers did not know very much about PLCs. But, he said "Stuxnet was a game changer." It was the first direct attack on PLC and HMI systems and also the first attack on governmental infrastructure from a physical angle because it was the first to destroy physical equipment. Minkebige said, "we've had other threats like denial of service but firewalls and antivirus software handled this." The other reason we were somewhat protected was because our systems and networks were old and isolated or were proprietary. He also said hackers were concentrating more on PCs – they were typically kids trying to cause trouble or break into banking systems. So basically he said we had "security through obsurity."

Then we heard about the Stuxnet attack in June of 2010. He said it was most likely deployed against Iran in 2009 by another governmental entity. Some person had picked up the virus on a USB stick and uploaded it into the Internet. There were 22,000 infections found in Iran and 6,700 in Indonesia. They suspect it took a team of 5 to 35 programmers 5 years to write the code for the virus. It is 500K bytes while most typical malware is only 10 to 15 K bytes.

The virus was spread through memory sticks and targeted Siemens PLCs and HMI software. From what Minkebige understood, the virus would "phone home" to a computer located most likely in Germany or Russia and reported what system it was on and then asked what it should do. The virus was programmed to self-destruct in June 2012. But if your antivirus found it, the virus would morph into something else. It also had two security certificates from Taiwan so it might also have appeared to be legitimate to an antivirus software program. When the virus did launch its attack it typically would change data or set points in the program. Then it would mis-report information about the operational data indicating it was operating at the correct levels or set points when it was not. A typical attack might change the speed of centrifuges by cycling them through great speed changes. There was a loss of 500 to 600 centrifuges because bearings were ripped out from this operational attack.

Unfortunately the code is now public knowledge. But there are some steps we have taken to protect our industry. Homeland Security (DHS) is on the lookout for attacks since water and wastewater plants in our country are vulnerable. And if Homeland Security recognizes an IP address from a suspect area accessing your system, the agency will notify your facility. The PLC industry has also added security to their systems. Operators are advised to keep up with patches for PLC systems. Industry organizations and societies are also publishing guidance. And DHS has released a document on how to secure your systems. We are advised to keep our systems off the Internet if possible. Otherwise, a firewall needs to be used for protection. Also, all systems should prohibit unauthorized memory devices from being used on PCs connected to your system, and you should lock out all USB connections to ensure they are not used. IT departments need to be made aware of this threat so they can monitor the systems for any suspicious activity. It's thought that future attacks might not necessarily be the Stuxnet virus, but an alteration of it.

Share

City of Cleveland Division of Water Requesting Help

Below is an urgent request for assistance from the City of Cleveland Division of Water. If you can help, contact information is provided in their message:

 

The City of Cleveland Division of Water is in urgent need of two 24” Victaulics couplings.  We have contacted Victaulic but have been informed it will take about a week before we can get them.  We have had a failure on a 24” main coming out of one of our treatment plants that is affecting our entire First High pressure district..  We have implemented a workaround feed to temporarily supply the area but are not certain how well this will work – reverse flow, different pressures, etc.

Does anyone have two of these: 24" Victaulic cplg style 44 with E gasket, plated bolts and shop primer coated   Part number C240044PE0.  If someone does, we would need to talk with them on further details, as well as make arrangement to pick them up.  They would get the new ones as soon as received.   Please feel free to contact me with any questions.  I can be reached at the below number until 4:30 pm, and at 216-374-7044 anytime.  You can also reach Kim Thompson, our Chief of Distribution at 216-348-7277 x 3405 or by cell at 216-857-7535.  I have copied him as well as our WARN representative, Payton Hall.

Thank you for your assistance

 

Melinda L. Raimann

Administrative Manager
Distribution & Maintenance
Cleveland Division of Water
216-664-2444 x 5638
216-348-7292 (fax)

melinda_raimann@clevelandwater.com

Share

WATERCON 2013 – Day 3

And here we are already at the third full day of the conference. Today I started out in the exhibit hall talking to folks as they walked by the booth where we had a display of the #watercon Tweets. But I didn't have much time to chat before having to run off to the Mission Impossible session. As soon as I walked in the door and was handed a sealed envelope marked "Confidential," I realized this would be no ordinary activity. Upon opening the envelope, I discovered I had been assigned to a task force to determine five action points to address signficant water-related deficiencies in a community. Fortunately I was not alone in this endeavor – there were three other water professionals on my team who were obviously very experienced. It didn't take long for us to develop our recommendations. There were three other teams in the room working on the same assignment, and when we were all done, the moderators had us share our ideas. It was interesting to see that all the teams had come up with similar approaches. Well except our team had not thought of calling the National Guard. But, hey, as the one participant pointed out – they are there and available to help so why not use them. Afterwards we were all rewarded with candy for undertaking such a challenging assignment.

WATERCON 2013 Mission Impossible session

After we were released from our task force, I managed to catch the session on Green Infrastructure. While I could not live blog it, I did manage to share a few key points through Twitter (look for the #watercon hashtag to see the stream). The overall message from the panel of speakers is that green infrastructure is made up of complex elements. Designers are still figuring things out – particularly costs. And even though we have the International BMP Database, they cautioned trying to implement someone else's solution for your project without giving careful consideration to local conditions and factors. And finally they pointed out the operation and maintenance and monitoring of BMPs can be expensive.

Later in the afternoon, I caught the following sessions and was able to live blog them. Follow the link to run the CoverItLive tool to see the main points:

Who, What, When, Where and Why of Backflow Prevention – this was also a panel discussion about cross connections and backflow protection. It was interesting to hear the approaches and ideas from each community. Several members from the audience shared their experiences too. Make sure to run the live blog tool to see the tips and advice.

The New World of SCADA Security – this session provided an interesting view of why our operations had not experienced control security issues in the past and why they are more vulnerable now. The main point was "security through obscurity." Until 2010, hackers didn't really know about PLCs or how they operated. But because several programmers got together and wrote a program to hack into a PLC, launched it on another country's operations, and had their program picked up by someone whose actions led to the eventual release of it on the Internet, now anyone can get the code. Great.

I didn't really get a chance to talk to many vendors today – the booths had to be taken down at noon. Tomorrow is the awards breakfast and a few legislative sessions. But because I have some commitments at home, I unfortunately won't be able to attend. So I guess this wraps up my summary of WATERCON, but remember, since we captured so much of it online, you can always access the information by visiting the #watercon Tweets and reviewing the live blog sessions.

I very much appreciate ISAWWA sponsoring my registration and look forward to seeing everyone back next year!

Share