Tag Archives: GIS

Mapping the Accessible Path

Access map screenshot showing sidewalk steepness at 0.5%The Data Science for Social Good (DSSG) team, a group out of the University of Washington, has been involved in an effort to improve mapping of the pedestrian way. By making use of the work from the OpenSidewalks project, they created AccessMap – a trip planning tool for people with limited mobility. With this tool, people can find the most accessible path through a network of sidewalks connected by curb ramps and street crossings.

At this time, the tool has only been implemented in Seattle, but the group plans to expand to other locations. The data used for the project is a compilation of the following elements with sources noted:

  • Base map – OpenStreetMap (OSM)
  • Sidewalks and curb ramps – Seattle Department of Transportation
  • Street crossings – DSSG Team
  • Elevations – National Elevation Dataset, USGS

When a user clicks a sidewalk segment, the steepness or grade is displayed. The screenshot of the map above shows a sidewalk segment along 1st Avenue between Madison and Spring streets at a 0.5% grade. Sidewalk segments are also colored coded to indicate the grade with red exceeding the required 5%, yellow just below the requirement, and green meeting the requirement. Clicking a street crossing or crosswalk displays the steepness or running grade along with a "Yes" or "No" to indicate whether or not curb ramps are at the corners.

To plan a route using the map, the user types in their origin and destination in a manner similar to how other mapping programs work. The difference is that Accessmap has a drop down tool for the user to designate a limit for maximum uphill and downhill grade and the need to avoid construction and require curb ramps. Different mobility assisted devices such as wheelchairs or canes can also be designated. Below is an example of a planned route.

Planned route example on accessmap

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Augview – a Window to Your Underground Assets

 

Water Main Installation

Augview, founded by Michael Bundock in 2012 in New Zealand, is the first commercial, mobile application I have seen offered to the public works industry allowing utilities to geospatially capture, store, and display underground utilities in 3D through the use of a tablet or other mobile device. The software, through the use of GIS, will show operators their water, sewer, or other underground lines superimposed in 3D upon the ground in a geospatially accurate position. Users can then query the lines as with any other online GIS and access data about that utility such as size, material, age, and any other type of stored data. Or if a locator finds a discrepancy in a line's location or if he finds a new line, he can enter it into the software and immediately verify the updated or new location is accurate.

One example I can think of where I could have used this type of device was when we found a patched area in a roadway on one of our projects. It was one of those typical failures you find where you can see someone repaired something, but there's still something going on because a small hole opens back up with a void underneath. A lot of times this is caused by a hole in a sewer which allows soil above the pipe to wash away into the line leaving a void under the pavement. I knew the city had a sewer running along the roadway near that area, and I noticed a water shut off box nearby in the parkway. Because in our area the sewer lines used to be run with the water lines, I suspected it could be a failure with the building sewer. The business owner came out to comment on it and mentioned there had been a problem there, but it was difficult for me to tell for sure from what she explained if it had been the city sewer or the building owner's line. If I had Augview, I would have seen how all these lines related and where they were located. This visualization would have offered a better prediction of exactly which line could possibly have a failure. Of course public works professionals already try to make this determination using paper maps, but if it was the building owner's line, it is much easier to explain the problem to them using a 3D representation of everything rather than expect them to read a utility atlas.

I would have also liked to have an application like Augview for management of our water network. Our crews could have used the application to document the valve position when they opened or closed it. Then we could have just driven by to see if we had opened them all back up after we repaired the break, or we could have noticed when a valve between our pressure zones accidently was opened.

It would also be useful to use Augview to look at non-utility data for something like visualizing roadway ratings in the field. Then each year when we went out to rate the roadways, perhaps Augview could color the roadway based on the rating we assigned the year before in our GIS. This would prevent us from juggling paper maps in the truck while we are trying to also view and assess the pavement.

Past articles on this site have also imagined one day a product like Augview could be used to assist contractors as they build by displaying not only the underground lines but actually superimposing the plan onto the site. And I don't think it will be long before this type of implementation is extended to allow us to display real time data too. I can see one day we will be able to look up at the water tower and actually see the level of water in it or be able to see an indication at our water or wastewater plants of the flows running in and out and through each process. It would also be interesting to be able to drive by our lift stations and see the whole area colored red or green rather than just see the little red/green run light. This is also another facility that could display flows, seal failures, water levels or any other type of data.

While at the present time Augview has primarily been implemented in New Zealand, Melanie Langlotz,  business development manager, said she is "also looking for interested parties in the U.S. who can see the possibilities." So I believe it won't be long before we see Augview in use throughout the U.S. and other countries.

You can find out more about Augview by watching the video below or visiting their website or other social media sites:

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Using GIS to Assist in Recent Illinois Tornado – Related Emergency Response

Recently in Illinois several communities unfortunately experienced extensive tornado damage. And over the last week I've seen several GIS-related efforts set up to offer information that could be helpful to those working to recover and rebuild. Below are a few quick summaries of these efforts:

OpenStreetMap

According to their website, OpenStreetMap is "a free, editable map of the whole world. Unlike proprietary datasets like Google Map Maker, the OpenStreetMap license allows free access to the full map dataset." So basically, this online map and the related data are available to anyone and can be edited by anyone. It's been useful over the last few years in helping communities experiencing disasters. One of my favorite examples of how this has been implemented is the assistance that was offered after the Haiti earthquake a few years ago. If interested, you can check out a video showing the timelapse of the OpenStreetMap edits for the Haiti effort here: OpenStreetMap Project Haiti

Last weekend, one of the cities in Illinois that experienced the most damage was Washington, Ill. Soon after relief efforts began, I noticed Dave Smith, a GIS professional from the Washington, DC, area had started an effort to map all the structures in Washington, Ill., on OpenStreetMap. Over the last week a number of people assisted him in this effort. At this point a good portion of the buildings have been mapped with only a few more areas left to be done. I embedded a view of the Washington, Ill., area of the map below. As you move around and zoom in keep in mind before Dave started this effort, there were no structures mapped in this city. You can see how much was done in just one week by volunteers from all over the world. The benefit of this map is that now, anyone can freely use this map and the information created by only properly citing the credit as indicated on the OpenStreetMap site:

 

Online Mapping of Damage

Today, Roger Diercks, another GIS professional I know who works in Illinois, posted a note in the local GIS user group about a mapping effort by Cloudpoint Geographics that shows the comparison between pre and post tornado. You can visit their map here: Post 11/17/2013 'Washington' Tornado Imagery

He also posted a link to a map set up by the Tri-County Regional Planning Commission showing the devastation and the path of the tornado. You can visit that map here: November 17, 2013 Tornado – Pekin/East Peoria/Washington

 

Using GIS to Prepare for a Disaster

All of these examples show what can be done online within a short amount of time to assist with emergency response. These mapping tools used in conjunction with hand held devices can allow emergency responders and inspectors to access maps real time and even provide edits of their own. And this can be critical for response efforts. One of the main issues I hear at emergency response training is that it can be difficult to orient yourself after a disaster if damage is extensive. People visiting sites that no longer have familiar landmarks, homes, or street signs can be left wondering where they are. So having access to online maps can help to improve response times and provide for a more successful overall rescue, assessment, and rebuilding. Of course, having as much mapped as possible prior to a disaster can make it that much easier. One idea for doing this is to involve the community or school using a map like OpenStreetMap. Perhaps during September which is National Preparedness Month, agencies can sponsor Map Days and encourage schools and citizens to edit the OpenStreetMap adding important information like homes, schools, parks, commercial structures, parking facilities, hospitals, shelters, addresses and any other information that might be helpful should the community experience a disaster. 

 

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Copyright and Consultant Exhibits

Copyright/Mapping ExampleToday another question came up in our ongoing discussions about copyright and government. So I thought I'd post the scenario and question and see how others viewed this. It seems that many counties, at least in Illinois, arrange for the production of aerials and the creation of data such as parcel information, roadway and water features, and other infrastructure. They then allow other governmental agencies to use this information. Often this permission is granted through agreements. Sometimes it is offered for free and sometimes at an annual cost. 

While much of this information is used by other governmental agencies like cities on a daily basis as the foundation for their GIS, occasionally a city might share this information with an outside consultant for the purpose of having exhibits or reports prepared. This is allowed through their agreement with the county because the use is for the purposes allowed in the agreement. However, if the governmental agency chooses not to include an ownership clause allowing them to retain all rights to the work created by the consultant, the company preparing the exhibits or reports will often attach a lengthy copyright and license document indicating the exhibit or report is covered under a copyright claimed by them. So the governmental agency cannot use the exhibit or report in any way that lies outside the uses specified under the consultant's copyright.

The question is, does the consultant have the right to copyright work they created using copyrighted material that they themselves had been granted no direct agreement or permission to use from the original owner of the work? Another but similar question is what if the city had paid a consultant to create an exhibit and included in the agreement a statement that allowed them to take ownership of the copyright upon final payment. So now the city owns the copyright to that exhibit. Let's say for some reason, the city wants to use that exhibit as a foundation for another exhibit, and they hire another consultant to create it. They do not release their original copyright, but do allow the consultant to use the exhibit to create a new one for them. However in this case they do not include any language retaining ownership of the final product. Does the consultant have the legal right to copyright the new exhibit when they have not been given permission to do anything other than modify the original work for their client? If I am the consultant, is all that I own in the  map above the work below?

Copyright/Mapping Example 2

I don't think too many people have addressed these two questions because it has really only become an issue with the increased use of digital tools. And I believe most people, myself included, had thought all government documents are in the public domain. However, we cannot assume this – by law, only federal documents are in the public domain. States and cities do have the right to copyright their work unless they have passed laws that state otherwise. And we all know you don't have to indicate a copyright – in the U.S. it is automatically created when you create a work. I'd be very interested in hearing any opinions, policies, or how governmental agencies and consultants are handling this issue.

(Note: the actual underlying map used in the example above is in the public domain, but the questions should be considered as if it was copyrighted and given to me to be used to create an exhibit for a proposed well location.)

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Publishing GIS Data to a Google Map Using Fusion Tables

At work we've been focusing a lot on development of web maps. We have an ESRI ArcGIS Server so we've been trying out the JavaScript, Flex, and Silverlight options available. But we've also been exploring the mapping/GIS opportunities offered by Google. This week, I needed to create an embeddable map that I could easily generate and place into a website. So I looked online for how to take our GIS data and get it published on a Google Map. I realize this can be done using a KML file, but I really wanted to use the Google Fusion Tables to display the data in map form. And I just could not find a set of clear directions on how to do this. Perhaps my search skills are lacking, but after coming up with nothing, I spent some time figuring it out myself using the few clues I could locate online. And because we have quite a few people at work who also use GIS and might want to publish their data on Google Maps, I decided to create a guide of how to do this. There might be an easier method or one that is not so conservative of an approach, but I know this works, and it didn't blow anything up. And since I already had the work done, I figured I'd share it here too in case it might also help others out.

 

Publishing GIS Data to a Google Map Using Fusion Tables

Open ArcMap, and create a new, blank map. Then open ArcCatalog in ArcMap and browse to your data. Drag the file with your original data into ArcMap.

(In my example, I am using our Stormwater Restrictor feature class. This feature class was created from a set of data points collected in the field using GPS and processed in the office to create this file. It was then added to our engineering SDE Geodatabase. I also obtained some of the information about calculating fields from this blog post: http://nativecho.wordpress.com/2011/04/12/arcgis-10-0-calculating-geometry-to-display-decimals/)

Finding your file in ArcCatalog within ArcMap

Checking the projection of your data

Because your original data is probably not in the same projection used by Google Map (WGS 1984 Web Mercator), you will need to re-project your data. You can check to see what system your data is on by right clicking the name of your feature class under “Layers” and choosing “Properties” from the pop-up menu. Click the “Source” tab in the Layer Properties window to see the Projected Coordinate System. When you are done viewing the projection information, cancel out of this window without taking any action.

Our data is on the NAD_1983_StatePlane_Illinois_East_FIPS_1201_Feet Projected Coordinate System—Transverse Mercator:

Checking the projection of your data

Creating a new shapefile from your original data

Because I do not want to change my original data or work in the geodatabase, I am first going to export my data to a shapefile. To export, right click the name of your feature class in the Table of Contents window in ArcMap. Then choose “Data” and then “Export Data” from the pop-up menu. For the “Output Feature Class” navigate to a folder location where you would like to store your shapefile. Choose a name for your shapefile; then hit “OK.”

Exporting your original data to a new shapefile

This will create a shapefile you can work with so you will not change your original data.

Next, close this map without saving and create a new one. Open up Arc Catalog in ArcMap and navigate to your new shapefile. Drag this into your new map and close out of ArcCatalog.

Re-projecting your data

We are now going to change the projection of the data in your shapefile. First right click the word “Layers” in the Table of Contents window in ArcMap. Choose “Properties” from the pop-up menu. Then choose the Coordinate System tab. The top window is showing your current projection for the data frame of your map. You can select your new projection from the window at the bottom. Navigate to “Predefined,” then “Projected Coordinate Systems,” then “World,” and finally to “WGS 1984 Web Mercator.” This is the projection used by Google Maps. Make sure that projection is the one highlighted as shown in the example, then click “OK.” Note that when you highlight this projection, it will change the display in the Current coordinate system box as shown in the image below. After you click “OK,” a Warning window might pop up—just choose “Yes” to indicate you wish to use that coordinate system.

Choosing a new projection for your data

 

Now you will right click on your feature class name in the Table of Contents window and again choose “Data” and “Export Data” from the pop-up window. This time, make sure to change the choice of the coordinate system to “the data frame” as shown in the image below. Navigate to where you want to save your new file, and choose a name for this new, re-projected shapefile. Then click “OK.”

Exporting the re-projected data

 

Adding latitude/longitude fields to your shapefile

Now we will close out the map without saving and create a new map. Open ArcCatalog again in ArcMap and navigate to your new shapefile. Right click on the new shapfile (in my example it is “RestrictorforGMreproject10120627.shp”) and choose “Properties” from the pop-up menu. Choose the “Fields” tab in the “Shapefile Properties” window. Then scroll down so you are viewing the bottom of the list of the fields. Here we will add two new fields, one for Latitude and one for Longitude, as shown below. Make sure the Data Type is “Double” and keep the default values of “0” for Precision and Scale. Click “OK” and drag the shapefile into your new map. Close out of ArcCatalog.

Adding latitude and longitude fields to our re-projected shapefile

 

Setting up the latitude/longitude fields

Now we are going to work towards calculating the Latitude and Longitude for each point in our feature class. Right click on the name of your feature class in the Table of Contents of the new map. Choose “Open Attribute Table” from the pop-up menu. In my example, the attribute table is docked above my Table of Contents and my map window. In the attribute table navigate over to the Latitude and Longitude fields. They should have 0 for all the entries. Click on the top of the column on the word “Latitiude” in the column heading to highlight the field. Then right click and choose “Properties” from the pop up menu.

Formatting the latitude and longitude fields

This will bring up a Field Properties window. In this window there is a box next to the word “Numeric.” Click that box with the “. . .”—this should bring up a “Number Format” window. In this window make sure the Category is “Numeric” and the Rounding is shown to at least 6 decimal places. Then click “OK.” Do the same for the Longitude column.

 

Calculating the latitude/longitude

Now we are going to calculate the latitude and longitude. Go to the Editor menu and click “Start Editing.” Then click on the heading “Latitiude” to highlight that field. Right click and choose “Calculate Geometry” from the pop-up menu. The “Calculate Geometry” window will pop up. In this window, set the property for Latitude to the “Y Coordinate of Point.” For the Coordinate System, choose the “Use coordinate system of the data source.” And set the units to “Decimal Degrees.” When you click “OK” the computer will populate the column with the Latitude for each point. Do the same for the Longitude field except the property will be set as the “X Coordinate of the Point.” Then go back to the editor menu and choose “Save Edits” then “Stop Editing.” You now have a feature class on the correct projection for Google Maps with the Latitude and Longitude for each point!

Calculating the latitude and longitude of our data

 

Exporting your data to a database

Now we have to get that data out to a format we can upload to Google. So click on the left most icon in the top of the Table window just under the word “Table.” This should bring up a menu—choose “Export” from this menu which brings up the “Export Data” window. Because we have only one feature class we can leave the Export as “All records.” In the Output table, type in the location and file name you want to assign to the exported data—notice this will be exported in a dbf format.

 

Exporting the attribute table to a database

 

 

Creating a spreadsheet and uploading to a Google Fusion Table

Now, navigate to that new dbf file and open it in MS Excel. Remove any columns you might not need and make any other edits you require (just don’t change the latitude or longitude columns) and save it as a MS Excel file. Go to your Google Documents account and click “Create.” Then from the list of document types, choose “Table (beta).” You will be given the choice of importing a new table from your computer, a Google spreadsheet or create an empty table. We are going to upload our new MS Excel file. Then continue through the prompts until you find yourself looking at your new table.

Uploading a spreadsheet to create a Google Fusion Table

(In my example, I have renamed my file to something other than the name used in my export to the database. This is because I merged other data into the database once I had it in MS Excel. And it helps remind me the MS Excel file is not exactly the same as the original, exported database file.)

 

Example of a Google Fusion Table with data exported from a GIS to a spreadsheet and uploaded to Google

 

View your data in a Google Map

Above is an example of what the Google Fusion Table looks like with your uploaded data. Viewing the points on the map now is as easy as clicking “Visualize” and then “Map.”

 

GIS data displayed in a Google Map using a Google Fusion Table

And below is the map of this data—I have clicked one of the points to show the data behind it. You also have the option to configure this info window using html. You can also put links in this window, but so far I've only gotten the link to work to an actual website and not to a local file.

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A Day in the Life of a Civil Engineer – Day 70

Day 70

GIS Group Meeting

Today started out amazing then in the afternoon went to total frustration. I had to leave very early this morning to meet a co-worker for a GIS meeting of IMAUG – Illinois Municipal Arc Users Group. If you are into GIS, this is a great group to get involved with. Today's meeting was in Vernon Hills so pretty far away from Geneva where we work. But it was well worth going to. I was scheduled to speak first thing about QR Codes. Not sure it was a subject many were interested in, but hopefully I was able to offer some insight into their use in our industry. Below this post is the presentation I gave.

The other presentations were much more amazing! Will Rockwell from the village of Vernon Hills explained to us how to use Google Fusion tables and maps to make incredible GIS maps. Wow – they turned out great looking with very little work. Here is a link to more information from Google about using this tool: http://www.google.com/fusiontables/Home/

We also heard from a few other speakers who talked about applications for checking properties with liens, ESRI certifications, and a county web map service.

Parking Lot Project

After lunch and after we returned, I went with a couple other engineers to meet with a few people to discuss the design of the alley that will connect our proposed parking lot with one of the main streets through our downtown. This was a good meeting, and we look forward to getting a landscape design from the person we met with.

Water Main Project

My primary frustration hit when one of the engineers gave me a copy of the easement plats we had arranged to have prepared for our water main project. We had purposely hired a local firm to provide the surveying services because they have always produced such good work for us in the past. Imagine my surprise when the engineer gave me the plat and said, "we have a problem – they left off part of the property." Sure enough they had missed the fact that the property owner had acquired additional property over which our easement should have run. And as the engineer pointed out, the surveyor had actually shifted our easement over from where we had shown it to be because of missing this additional parcel. Well, when I looked at who prepared the plat, it was not the firm we had hired but another that we had specifically chosen not to use exactly because of problems like this. So I called the firm we had hired to ask why they hired another firm to do the work we hired them to do. All they said was sometimes they do that. No apology – no "I guess we should have asked if we could sub out the work." Nothing. I am not even quite sure how to respond at this time because I have never even heard of a firm doing such a thing. We are supposed to meet on Monday to discuss where to go from here.

 

 

 

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